Incorporation of Copper/Melamine Complexes in Silica Surface Andtheir Sorption Activity of Organic Dye

Document Type: Research Article


Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, EGYPT


The efficiency and performance of supported melamine/ copper complexes, S/[CuCl2(Mel)2].2MeOH, as a new adsorbent, for the adsorptive removal of Indigo Carmine (IC) from aqueous solutions, has been evaluated with respect to several experimental conditions including contact time, initial IC concentration, temperature and adsorbent dosage. The maximum removal percentage (approximately 84%) was observed when used 0.05 g/L of S/[CuCl2(Mel)2].2MeOH, 1.5 x 10-5mol/L of initial IC concentration and contact time of 15min. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin isotherm models. The monolayer adsorption capacity of S/[CuCl2(Mel)2].2MeOHwas found to be 16.8 x 10-3mol/g by using Langmuir isotherm model. The calculation of the thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, entropy and enthalpy changes of the ongoing adsorption process indicated the feasibility and endothermic nature of IC adsorption. The kinetics study suggested that the adsorption of IC onto S/[CuCl2(Mel)2].2MeOH proceeds according to the pseudo-second-order model.


Main Subjects

[1] Refat M.S., Adam A.- M.A., El-Sayed M.Y., Biomarkers Charge-Transfer Complexes of Melamine with Quinol and Picric Acid: Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Thermal, Kinetic and Biological Studies, Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10: S3482-S3492 (2014).

[2] Xu L.-F., Chen X.-L., Hu H.-M., Wang B.-C.,  Syntheses, Structures and Electrochemical Properties of Two Co-Crystal Copper(II) Melamine Complexes, Journal of Molecular Structure, 892: 163-167 (2008).

[3] Zhang J., LiZ.-J., WenY.-H., KangY., ChengJ.-K., YaoY.-G., Syntheses and Structures of Two Novel Ag(I) Complexes: [μ3-2-(4-pyridyl)Ethanesulfonato-N,O,O′]-Aqua-Silver(I) and Melamine-[2-(4-pyridyl)Ethanesulfonato-N]-Silver(I), Journal of Molecular Structure, 697:185-189 (2004).

[4] Acharya S.N.G., Gopalan R.S., Kulkarni G.U., Venkatesan K., Bhattacharya S., Novel Organic Porous Solids with Channel and Layered Structures From 1, 3, 5-Triazine-2, 4, 6-Triaminehexaacetic Acid and Its Calcium Salt, Chem. Commun.,15: 1351-1352 (2000).

[5] Sharif M.A., Aghabozorg H., Shokrollahi A., Kickelbick G., Moghimi A., Shamsipur M. Novel Proton Transfer Compounds Containing 2,6-Pyridine dicarboxylic Acid and Melamine and Their PbII Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Crystal Structure and Solution Studies, Polish J. Chem., 80: 847-863 (2006).

[6] Feng W., Lv C., Yang L., Cheng J., Yan C., Determination of Melamine Concentrations in Dairy Samples, LWT-food Science and Technology, 47:147-153 (2012).

[7] Kuang H., Chen W., Yan W., Xu L., Zhu Y., Liu L., Chu H., Peng C., Wang L., Kotov N.A., Xu C., Crown Ether Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles: Melamine Sensor, Biosensors and Vioelectronics, 26: 2032-2037 (2011).

[8] Mauer L.J., Chernyshova A.A., Hiatt A., Deering A., Davis  R., Melamine Detection in Infant Formula Powder Using Near- and Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy, J Agric Food Chem., 57: 3974-3980 (2009).

[9] Muñiz-Valencia R., Ceballos- Magaña S. G., Rosales- Martinez D., Gonzalo- Lumbreras R., Santos- Montes A., Cubedo- Fernandez-Trapiella A., Izquierdo- Hornillos R. C., Method Development and Validation for Melamine and Its Derivatives
in Rice Concentrates by Liquid Chromatography. Application to Animal Feed Samples
, Anal.  Bioanal.Chem., 392: 523-531 (2008).

[10] Xu X.M., Ren Y. P., Zhu Y.,Cai Z. X., Han J. L., Huang B. F., Zhu Y.,Direct Determination of Melamine in Dairy Products by Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry with Coupled Column Separation, Anal Chim. Acta., 650: 39-43 (2009).

[11] Yang G., Han H., Du C., Luo Z., Wang Y., Facile Synthesis of Melamine-based Porous Polymer Networks and Their Application for Removal of Aqueous Mercury Ions, Polymer, 51: 6193-6202 (2010).

[12] Mooibroek T.J., Gamez P., The s-Triazine Ring, a Remarkable Unit to Generate Supramolecular Interactions, Inorg. Chim. Acta. ,360: 381-404 (2007).

[13] Steffensen M.B., Hollink E., Kuschel F., Bauer M., Simanek E.E., Dendrimers Based on [1,3,5]-Triazines, J. Poly. Sci. Part A Poly. Chem., 44: 3411- 3433 (2006).

[14] Zhang L., Li W., Zhang J., Li Z.-J., Qin Y.-Y., Cheng J.- K., Yao Y.- G., Anti Ferromagnetic Interactions in Melamine-Bridged Trinuclear Cobalt Complex, Inorganic Chemistry Communications,11: 8286-8293 (2008).

[16] Wiles A. B., Bozzuto D., Cahill C. L., Pike R. D., Copper (I) and (II) Complexes of MelaminePolyhedron, 25: 776-782 (2006).

[17] Zhang X.-L., Chen X.-M., Copper (I) and (II) Complexes of Melamine, Crystal Growth & Design, 5: 776-782 (2005).

[18] Ye B.H.,Infinite Water Chains Trapped in an Organic Framework Constructed from Melamine with 1,5-Naphthalenedisulfonic Acid via Hydrogen Bonds, Crystal Growth & Design, 5: 1609- 1616 (2005).

[19] YuY.-Q., LuC.-Z., He X., Chen S.-M., Zhang Q.-Z., Chen L.-J., Yang W.-B., Synthesis, Structure and Fluorescent Property of a Novel Inorganic–Organic Zinc Compound, J. Chem. Cryst., 34: 905-909 (2004).

[20] Schwab M.G., Fassbender B., Spiess H.W., Thomas A., Feng X., Müllen K., Catalyst-Free Preparation of Melamine-Based Microporous Polymer Networks through Schiff Base Chemistry, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131: 7216-7217 (2009).

[21] Li Y.-H., Sun D., Luo G.-G., Liu F.-J., Hao H.-J., Wen Y.-M., Zhao Y., Huang R.-B., Zheng L.-S.,  Two Ag(I) Coordination Polymers Derived From Melamine and Dicarboxylates: Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Thermal Stabilities, J. of Molecular Structure, 1000: 85- 91 (2011).

[22] Li Y., Gao Y.,Cao Y., Li H., Electrochemical Sensor for Bisphenol A Determination Based on MWCNT/Melamine Complex Modified GCE, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 171: 726- 733 (2012).

[24] Barka N., Assabbane A., Nounah A., Ichou Y.A.,Photocatalytic Degradation of Indigo Carmine in Aqueous Solution by TiO2-Coated Non-Woven Fibres, J Hazard Mater.,152:1054-1059 (2008).

[25] Jeffords D.L., Lance P.H., Dewolf WC Severe Indigo. Severe Hypertensive Reaction to Indigo Carmine, Urology, 180–181 (1977).

[26] Zainal Z., Hui L.K., Hussein M.Z., Taufiq-Yap Y.H., Abdullah A.H., Ramli I.,Removal of Dyes Using Immobilized Titanium Dioxide Illuminated by Fluorescent Lamps, J Hazard Mater, 125 : 113- 120 (2005).

[27] Martínez-Orozco R.D., Rosu H.C., Lee S.W., Rodríguez-González V.,Thin Extractive Membrane for Monitoring Actinides in Aqueous Streams, J. Hazard Mater., 263: 53- 60 (2013) .

[29] Dogdu G., Yalcuk A., Indigo Dyeing Wastewater Treatment by Eco-Friendly Constructed Wetlands Using Different Bedding Media, Desalination and Water Treatment, 57: 15007-15019  (2016).

[31] Lorimer J.P., Mason T.J., Plattes M., Phull S.S., Dye Effluent Decolourisation Using Ultrasonically Assisted Electro-Oxidation, Ultrason Sonochem., 7: 237- 242 (2000).

[46] Camino G., Costa L., Luda di Cortemiglia M.P., Overview of Fire Retardant Mechanisms, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 33: 131- 154 (1991).

[47] Prabhumirashi L. S., Khoje J. K., TGA and DTA Studies on en and Tmn Complexes of Cu(II) Chloride, Nitrate, Sulphate, Acetate and Oxalate, Thermochimica Acta, 383: 109- 118 (2002).

[48] Elsherbiny A.S., Salem M.A., Ismail A.A.,Influence of the Alkyl Chain Length of Cyanine Dyes on Their Adsorption by Na+-Montmorillonite From Aqueous Solutions, Chemical Engineering Journal, 200: 283- 290 (2012).

[49] Ramakrishna K.R., Viraraghavan T., Volatile Fatty Acid Production in Aerobic Thermophilic Pre-Treatment of Primary Sludge, Water Sci. Technol., 36: 189- 196 (1997).

[50] DÕgan M., Alkan M., Demirbas O., Ozdemir Y., Ozmetin C., Adsorption Kinetics of Maxilon Blue GRL Onto Sepiolite From Aqueous Solutions, Chem. Eng. J., 124:89-101 (2006).

[51] Mall I.D., Srivastava V.C.,Agarwal N.K., Mishrab I.M., Removal of Congo Red From Aqueous Solution by Bagasse Fly Ash and Activated Carbon: Kinetic Study and Equilibrium Isotherm Analyses, Chemosphere, 61: 492-501 (2005).

[52] Vautier M., Guillard C., Herrmann J.M., Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes in Water: Case Study of Indigo and of Indigo Carmine, J. Catal., 201: 46-59 (2001).

[54] Marcus Y., "Ion Properties" Marcel Dekker, New York, (1997).

[55] Johanson U., Marandi M.,Tamm T., Tamm J., Comparative Study of the Behavior of Anions in Polypyrrole Films, Electrochem. Acta, 50: 1523- 1528 (2005).

[56] Ghaedi M., Sadeghian B., Amiri Pebdani A., Sahraei R., Daneshfar A.,Duran C., Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Equilibrium Evaluation of Direct Yellow 12 Removal by Adsorption Onto Silver Nanoparticles Loaded Activated Carbon, Chemical  Engineering  Journal, 187: 133-141 (2012).

[57] Chiou M.S., Li H.Y., Equilibrium and Kinetic Modeling of Adsorption of Reactive Dye on Cross-Linked Chitosan Beads, J.  Hazard. Mater., 93: 233- 248 (2002).

[58] Langmuir I., The Adsorption of Gases on Plane Surfaces, Mica and Platinum, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 40: 1361- 1403  (1918).

[60] Langmuir I.,The Constitution and Fundamental Properties of Solids and Liquids: Part I Solids, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 38: 2221-2295 (1916).

[62] Chilton N., Losso J.N., Marshall W.E., Freundlich Adsorption Isotherms of Agricultural by-Product-Based Powdered Activated Carbons in a Geosmin–Water System, Bioresour. Technol., 85: 131-135 (2002).

[64] Ai L., Huang H.,Chen Z., Wei X., Jiang J., Activated Carbon/CoFe2O4 Composites: Facile Synthesis, Magnetic Performance and Their Potential Application for the Removal of Malachite Green From Water,Chemical  Engineering  Journal, 156: 243-249 (2010).

[65] Jain M., Garg V.K., Kadirvelu K., Adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium From Aqueous Medium Onto Carbonaceous Adsorbents Prepared From Waste Biomass, Journal of Environmental Management, 91: 949- 957  (2010).

[67] Iqbal M.J., Ashiq M.N., Adsorption of Dyes from Aqueous Solutions on Activated Charcoal, J. Hazard. Mater.,139: 57-66(2007).

[68] Ho Y.S., McKay G., Wase D.A.J., Foster C.F., Study of the Sorption of Divalent Metal Ions on to Peat, Adsorpt. Sci. Technol., 18: 639-650 (2000).

[69] RuthvenD.M, LoughlinK.F., The Effect of Crystallite Shape and Size Distribution on Diffusion Measurements in Molecular Sieves, Chem. Eng. Sci., 26: 577-584 (1971).

[71] Arami M., Limaee N.Y., Mahmoodi N.M., Tabrizi N.S., Equilibrium and Kinetics Studies for the Adsorption of Direct and Acid Dyes from Aqueous Solution by Soy Meal Hull, J. Hazard. Mater., 135: 171-179 (2006).

[72] Laidler K.J., Meiser J.M., “Physical Chemistry, Houghton Mifflin”, New York, 852 (1999).

[73] Raji C., Anirudhan T.S., Chromium (VI) Adsorption by Sawdust Carbon: Kinetics and Equilibrium, Ind. J. Chem. Technol. 4: 228-236 (1997).