Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Three Medicinal Plant Extracts as Efficient Reducing Agents

Document Type: Research Article


Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, I.R. IRAN


The aim of this work is a green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Anthriscus sylvestris, Ferula gummosa, and Achillea eriohora leaf and stems as the reducing agents. The effects of reducing agent concentration in the reaction mixture and temperature on the size of the gold nanotriangles were studied. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis spectroscopy, XRD, and SEM. XRD studies show that the particles are crystalline in the cubic phase. However, the reduction of gold ions by plant extracts resulted in the formation of spherical gold nanoparticles with diameters from 18 to 56 nm.


Main Subjects

[1] Nel A., Xia T., Mädler L., Li N., Toxic Potential of Materials at the Nanolevel, Science, 311(5761): 622-627 (2006)

[2] Parveen S., Misra R., Sahoo S.K., Nanoparticles: A Boon to Drug Delivery, Therapeutics, Diagnostics and Imaging. Nanomedicine, Nanotech. Biol. Med., 8(2): 147-166 (2012).

[3] Shiju N.R., Guliants V.V., Recent Developments in Catalysis Using Nanostructured Materials, Appl. Catal., A 356(1): 1-17 (2009).

[4] Nejadmoghaddam M.R, Babamahmoodi A., Minai-Tehrani A, Zarnani A.-H, Dinarvand R, The use of objective oriented project planning tools for nanosafety and health concerns: a case study in nanomedicine research project Eur. J. Nanomed.. 8(4): 225-;231 (2016).

[6] Khatoon N., Mazumder J.A., Sardar M., Biotechnological Applications of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles, J. Nanosci. Curr. Res., 2: 1-8 (2017).

[7] Bhattacharya R., Mukherjee P., Biological Properties of “Naked” Metal Nanoparticles, Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 60(11): 1289-1306 (2008).

[9] Kumar V., Yadav S.K., Characterisation of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesised by Leaf and Seed Extract of Syzygium cumini L., J. Exp. Nanosci., 7(4): 440-451 (2012).

[10] Kesarla M.K., Mandal B.K., Bandapalli P.R., Gold Nanoparticles by Terminalia bellirica Aqueous Extract–a Rapid Green Method, J. Exp. Nanosci., 9(8): 825-830 (2014).

[11] Habibi Z., Eshaghi, R., Mohammadi, M., Yousefi, M., Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Heracleum rechingeri Manden from Iran, Nat. Prod. Res., 24 (11): 1013-1017 (2010).

[12] Pawar O., Deshpande N., Dagade S., Waghmode S., Nigam Joshi P., Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Purple Acid Phosphatase Apoenzyme Isolated from a New Source Limonia acidissima, J. Exp. Nanosci., 11: 28-37 (2016).

[13] Babu S., Claville M.O., Ghebreyessus K., Rapid Synthesis of Highly Stable Slver Nanoparticles and Its Application for Colourimetric Sensing of Cysteine, J. Exp. Nanosci., 10: 1242-1255 (2015).

[14] Mohanpuria P., Rana N.K., Yadav S.K., Biosynthesis of Nanoparticles: Technological Concepts and Future Applications, J. Nanopart. Res. 10(3): 507-517 (2008).

[15] Noruzi M., Zare D., Khoshnevisan K., Davoodi D., Rapid Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Rosa hybrida Petal Extract at Room Temperature, Spectrochim. Acta Part A: Mol. Biomol.Spec., 79(5): 1461-1465 (2011).

[16] Kumar V.G., Gokavarapu S.D., Rajeswari A., Dhas T.S., Karthick V., Kapadia Z., Shrestha T., Barathy I., Roy A., Sinha S., Facile Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Antidiabetic Potent Cassia auriculata, Colloid Surf. B 87(1): 159-163 (2011).

[17] Parida U.K., Bindhani B.K., Nayak P., Green Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles Using Onion (Allium cepa) Extract, World J. Nano Sci. Eng. 1(04): 93 (2011).

[18] Narayanan K.B., Sakthivel N., Coriander Leaf Mediated Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles, Mat. Lett., 62(30): 4588-4590 (2008).

[20] Labrenz M., Druschel G.K., Thomsen-Ebert T., Gilbert B., Welch S.A., Kemner K.M., Logan G.A., Summons R.E., De Stasio G., Bond P.L., Formation of Sphalerite (ZnS) Deposits in Natural Biofilms of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, Science, 290(5497): 1744-1747 (2000).

[21] Raghunandan D., Bedre M.D., Basavaraja S., Sawle B., Manjunath S., Venkataraman A., Rapid Biosynthesis of Irregular Shaped Gold Nanoparticles from Macerated Aqueous Extracellular Dried Clove Buds (Syzygium aromaticum) Solution, Colloid Surf. B, 79(1): 235-240 (2010).

[22] Pimprikar P., Joshi S., Kumar A., Zinjarde S., Kulkarni S., Influence of Biomass and Gold Salt Concentration on Nanoparticle Synthesis by the Tropical Marine Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589, Colloid  Surf. B, 74(1): 309-316 (2009).

[23] Inbakandan D., Venkatesan R., Ajmal Khan S., Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Utilizing Marine Sponge Acanthella elongata (Dendy, 1905), Colloid Surf. B, 81(2): 634-639 (2010).

[24] Philip D., Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles, Spectrochim. Acta Mol. Biomol. Spect., 71(1): 80-85 (2008).

[25] Smitha S., Nissamudeen K., Philip D., Gopchandran K., Studies on Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photoluminescence of Silver Nanoparticles, S Spectrochim. Acta Mol. Biomol. Spect., 71(1): 186-190 (2008).

[26] Li Z., Friedrich A., Taubert A., Gold Microcrystal Synthesis via Reduction of HAuCl4 by Cellulose in the Ionic Liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride, J. Mater. Chem., 18(9): 1008-1014 (2008).

[27] Ghodake G., Deshpande N., Lee Y., Jin E., Pear Fruit Extract-Assisted Room-Temperature Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoplates, Colloid Surf. B, 75(2): 584-589 (2010).

[28] Bankar A., Joshi B., Ravi Kumar A., Zinjarde S., Banana Peel Extract Mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles, Colloid Surf. B, 80(1): 45-50 (2010).

[29] Samiee Beyragh S., Varsei M., Meshkini M., Khodadadi DarbanA., Gholami E., Kinetic and Adsorption Isotherms Study of Cyanide Removal from Gold Processing Wastewater Using Natural and Impregnated Zeolites, Iran J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 37(2): 139-149 (2018).

[30] Azarkhalil M.S., Keyvani B., Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Spent X-Ray Photographic Solution via Chemical Rreduction, Iran  J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 35(3): 1-8 (2016).