Synthesis of Single Phase Tin(II) Oxide Nanoparticles by Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Technique

Document Type: Research Article


Department of Physics, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Shahinshahr, Isfahan, I.R. IRAN


This paper presents a novel microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique for synthesizing tin(II) oxide nanoparticles. This technique can be used for producing large quantities of homogeneous nanoparticles in a short time. The effect of the solution molarity, final pH, hydrothermal processing time and microwave power were studied. The tin(II) oxide structure verified from XRD and the mean crystallite size was evaluated to be about 5 nm using the Debye-Scherrer formula on the most intense peak. The particle size was measured from STM pictures in the range between 4-5 nm. For different samples, UV-Vis spectroscopy showed the absorption peak due to tin(II) oxide at about 240 nm and an exitonian peak at about 280 nm that shifted with respect to solution molarity, final pH, hydrothermal processing time and microwave power. The photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) results showed the emission peaks in the visible spectrum range. The results showed that synthesized SnO nanoparticles have a direct bandgap equal to about 2.5 eV, an Urbach energy of about 2.7 eV and activation energy of 47.75kJ/mol.


Main Subjects

[1] Krishnakumar T., Jayaprakash R., Singh V.N., Mehta B.R., Phani A.R., Synthesis and Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanoparticle for Humidity Sensor Applications, J. Nano Res., 4: 91-101 (2008).

[2] Tomashyk V., “Quaternary Alloys Based on II-VI Semiconductors”, CRC Press, (1993).

[3] Nwanya A.C., Ugwuoke P.E., Ezekoye B.A., Osuji R.U., Ezema F.I., Structural and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Silver Oxide Thin Films: Role of Deposition Time, Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2013: 450820 (2013).

[4] Peleckis G., “Studies on Diluted Oxide Magnetic Semiconductors for Spin Electronic Application”, PhD Thesis, Institute of Superconductive and Electronic Material, University of Wollongong, (2006).

[5] Batzill M., Diebold U., The Surface and Materials of Tin Oxide, Prog. Surf. Sci., 79: 47-154 (2005).

[6] Vijayaprasath G., Ravi G., Hayakawa Y., Effect of Solvent on Size and Morphologies of SnO Nanoparticles via Chemical Co-precipitation Method, Inter. J. Sci. Eng. Appl., Special Issue NCRTAM ISSN-2319-7560 (Online): 21-23 (2013).

[7] Pires F.I., Joanni E., Savu R., Zaghete M.A., Longo E., Varela J.A., Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanocrystalline SnO Powders, Mater. Lett., 62: 239-242 (2008).

[8] Majumdar S., Chakraborty S., Devi P., Sen A., Room Temperature Synthesis of Nanocrystalline SnO through Sonochemical Route, Mater. Lett., 62: 1249-1251 (2008).

[9] Rellinghaus B., Linackers D., Kockerling M., Roth P., Wassermann E.F., The Process of Particle Formation in the Flame Synthesis of Tin Oxide Nanoparticle, Phase Transitions, 76: 347-354 (2003).

[10] Jimenze V.M., Gonzalez A.R., Espinos J.P., Justo A., Fernandez A., Synthesis of SnO and SnO2 Nanocrystalline Powders by the Gas Phase Condensation Method, Sens. Actuators, B, 31: 29-32 (1996).

[11] Zheng H., Gu Ch.D., Wang X.L., Tu J.P., Fast Synthesis and Optical Property of SnO Nanoparticles from Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid, J. Nanopart. Res., 16: 2288-2296 (2014).

[12] Um J., Roh B., Kim S., Kim S.E., Effect of Radio Frequency Power on the Properties of p-type SnO Deposited via Sputtering, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process., 16: 1679-1683 (2013).

[13] Mote V.D., Purushotham Y., Dole B.N., Williamson-Hall Analysis in Estimation of Lattice Strain in Nanometer-Sized ZnO Particles, J. Theor. Appl. Phys., 6: 1-8 (2012).

[14] Svanberg S., “Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy: Basic Aspects and Practical Applications”, 4th ed., Springer, Germany (2004).

[15] Aydogu S., Sendil O., Coban M.B., The Optical and Structural Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by the Spray Pyrolysis Technique, Chin. J. Phys., 50: 89-100 (2011).

[16] Kasap S., Capper P., “Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials”, Springer Science & Business Media (2007).

[17] Logan S.R., The Origin and Status of the Arrhenius Equation, J. Chem. Educ., 59: 279-283 (1982).

[18] Uysal B.O., Arier U.O.A., Structural and Optical Properties of SnO2 Nanofilms by Spin-Coating Method, Appl. Surf. Sci., 350: 74–78 (2015).