Bioleaching of Molybdenum by Two New Thermophilic Strains Isolated and Characterized

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Biotechnology Group, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, I.R. IRAN

2 Biotechnology Group, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Tehran, I.R. IRAN

4 Department of Microbiology, Islamic Azad University, Jahrom Branch, Jahrom, I.R. IRAN

Abstract

This study involves the isolation and characterization of a bacterial strain capable of bioleaching molybdenum ore. Bacterial growth was observed when rock sample was incubated in 9K at 70 ºC. The isolates were identified as extremely acidophilic, thermophilic and chemolithotroph archaebacteria. Following PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA of the isolated strain, the sequencing of this region and comparison with the Gen-Bank database identified the strains as Acidianus ambivalens and Sulfolobus solfataricus. An experimental design was carried out to optimize bioleaching of molybdenum by these bacteria. Factors of pulp density, initial pH, the concentration of Fe3+ and the ratio of two bacteria are the variables and molybdenum and uranium recoveries were selected as responses. Bioleaching was carried out using molybdenum ore and pulp density of 4%, initial pH of 1.5, Fe3+ concentration of 11.5 g/L and Sulfolobus solfataricus  to Acidianus ambivalens ratio of 2.0 were selected as optimum conditions. Molybdenum and uranium recoveries were 43.2% and 79.1% respectively.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Plumb J., Gibbs B., Stott M.B., Robertson W.J., Gibson J.A.E., Nichols P.D., Watling H.R., Franzmann P.D., Enrichment and Characterization of Thermophilic Acidophiles for the Bioleaching of Mineral Sulfides, Minerals Engineering, 14: 787-794 (2002).

[2] Son K.H., Lee C.G., Cho N., Leaching of Copper from Furnace Dust by Pure and Mixed Culture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans, Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, 28: 1777-1780 (2007).

[3] Lavalle L., Giaveno A., Pogliani C., Donati E., Bioleaching of a Polymetallic Sulfide Mineral by Native Strains of Leptospirillum Ferrooxidans from Patagonia Argentina, Process Biochemistry, 43: 445-450 (2008).

[4] Jonson D.B., Biodiversity and Ecology of Acidophilic Microorganisms, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 27: 307-317 (1998).

[6] Zeng W.M., Zhou H.B., Wan M.X., Chao W.L., Xu A.L., Liu X.D., Qiu G.Z., Preservation of Acidithiobacillus caldus: A Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium and the Effect on Subsequent Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite, Hydrometallurgy, 96: 333-336 (2009).

[7] Okibe N., Gericke M., Hallberg K.B., Johnson D.B., Enumeration and Characterization of Acidophilic Microorganisms Isolated from a Pilot Plant Stirred-Tank Bioleaching Operation, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69: 1936-1943 (2003).

[8] Panda S., Akcil A., Pradhan N., Deveci H., Current Scenario of Chalcopyrite Bioleaching: A Review on the Recent Advances to Its Heap-/Leach Technology, Bioresource Technology, 196: 694-706 (2015).

[11] Ogbonna N., Petersen J., Laurie H., An Agglomerate Scale Model for the Heap Bioleaching of Chalcocite, The Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 106: 433-442 (2005). 

[13] Ehrlich H.E., Past, Present and Future of Hydrometallurgy, Hydrometallurgy, 59(2-3): 127-134 (2001).

[14] Brierley C.L., Murr L.E., Leaching: Use of a Thermophilic and Chemoautotrophic Microbe, Science, 179: 488-490 (1973).

[15] Brierley C.L., Molybdenite Leaching: Use of a High Temperature Microbe, Journal of Less Common Methods, 36: 237-247 (1974).

[16] Romano P., Blazquez M.L., Alguacil F.J., Munoz J.A., Ballester A., Gonzalez F., Comparative Study on the Selective Chalcopyrite Bioleaching
of a Molybdenite Concentrate with Mesophilic and Thermophilic Bacteria
, FEMS Microbiology Letters, 196, 71-75 (2001).

[17] Xiong Y., Chen C., Gu X., Biswas B.K., Shan W., Lou Z., Fang D., Zang S., Investigation on the Removal of Mo(VI) from Mo–Re Containing Wastewater by Chemically Modified Persimmon Residua, Bioresource Technology, 102: 6857-6862 (2011).

[18] Romano P., Blazquez M.L., Ballester A., Gonzalez F., Alguacil F.J., Reactivity of the Molybdenite Concentrate Aginst Chemical or Bacterial Attack, Mineral Engineering, 14, 9:987-996 (2001).

[19] Mousavi S.M., Yaghmaei S., Vossoughi M., Roostaazad R., Jafari A., Ebrahimi M., Habibollahnia Chabok O., Turunen I., The Effects of Fe(II) and Fe(III) Concentration and Initial pH on Microbial Leaching of Low-Grade Sphalerite Ore
in A Column Reactor
, Bioresource Technology, 99: 2840-2845 (2008).

[20] Lakshmanan R., Okoli C., Boutonnet M., Järas S., Rajarao G.K., Effect of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Surface Water Treatment: Trace Minerals and Microbes, Bioresource Technology, 129: 612-615 (2013).

[21] Madigan, M., Martinko, J., “Brock Biology of Microorganisms” (11th ed.). Prentice Hall (2005).

[24] Leininger S., Urich T., Schloter M., Archaea Predominate Among Ammonia-Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Soils, Nature, 442(7104): 806-9 (2006).

[25] Baker B.J., Banfield J.F., Microbial Communities in Acid Mine Drainage, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 44(2): 139-152 (2003).

[26] Li S., Zhong H., Hu Y., Zhao J., He Z., Gu G., Bioleaching of a Low-Ggrade Nickel–Copper Sulfide by Mixture of Four Thermophiles, Bioresource Technology, 153: 300-306 (2014).

[28] Keeling S.E., Palmer M.L., Caracatsanis J.A., Walting H.R., Leaching of Chalcopyrite and Spalerite Using Bacteria Enriched from a Spent Chalcocite Heap, Minerals Engineering, 18: 1289-1296 (2005).

[29] Anton A.I., Martinez-Murcia A.J., Rodriguez-Valera F., Sequence Diversity in the 16S–23S Intergenic Spacer Region (ISR) of the rRNA Operons in Representatives of the Escherichia coli ECOR Collection, Journal of Molecular Evolution, 47: 62-72 (1998).

[30] Brierley J.A., Brierley C.L., Present and Future Commercial Applications of Biohydrometallurgy, Hydrometallurgy, 59(2-3): 233-239 (2001).

[31] Brock T.D., Brock K.M., Belly R.T., Weiss R.L., Sulfolobus: A New Genus of Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria Living at Low pH and High Temperature, Arch. Microbiol., 84(1): 54-68 (1972).

[32] Ehrlich H.L., Brierley C.L., “Microbial Mineral Recovery”. McGraw-Hill (1990).

[33] Guanzhou Qiu, Qian Li, Runlan Yu, Zhanxue Sun, Yajie Liu, Miao Chen, Huaqun Yin, Yage Zhang, Yili Liang, Lingling Xu, Limin Sun, Xueduan Liu, Column Bioleaching of Uranium Embedded in Granite Porphyry by A Mesophilic Acidophilic Consortium, Bioresource Technology, 102: 4697-4702 (2011).

[35] Mikkelsen D., Kappler U., Webb R.I., Rasch R., McEwan A.G., Sly L.I., Visualization of Pyrite Leaching by Selected Thermophilic Archaea: Nature of Microorganism–ore Interactions During Bioleaching; SEM Images, Hydrometallurgy, 88: 143-153 (2007).

[36] Abdollahy M., Shojaosadati S.A., Zare Tavakoli H., Valivand A., Bioleaching of Low Grade Uranium Ore of Saghand Mine, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 30(4): 71-79 (2011).

[37] Sana S., Roostaazad R., Yaghmaei S., Biosorption of Uranium (VI) from Aqueous Solution by Pretreated Aspergillus niger Using Sodium Hydroxide, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 34(1): 65-74 (2015).

[38] Ghorbani Y., Oliazadeh M., Shahverdi A.R., Microbiological Leaching of Al from the Waste of Bayer Process by Some Selective Fungi, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 28(1): 109-115 (2009).

[39] Xie X., Yuan X., Liu N., Chen X., Abdelgadir A., Jianshe Liu J., Bioleaching of Arsenic-Rich Gold Concentrates by Bacterial Flora Before and After Mutation, BioMed Research International, 2013 (2013).