The Effect of Fe-Loading and Calcination Temperature on the Activity of Fe/TiO2 in Phenol Degradation

Document Type: Research Article


Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, I.R. IRAN


In this research work, iron modified titanium dioxide photocatalyst was synthesized by the sol-gel method. The catalyst is characterized by FT-IR, XRF, and TGA techniques. Since the activity of Fe/TiO2 is highly affected by the loading of Fe, our major purpose of this work was focused on the role of this factor. Moreover, the effect of calcination temperature, which was also of high importance, was studied in this work. FT-IR results indicated the existence of a peak in the range of 1100-1200corresponding to Ti-O-Fe bonds. The intensity of this peak is proportional to the amount of iron, which is incorporated into the TiO2 lattice. Optimum Fe-loading was specified by FT-IR and it was measured by XRF. In order to evaluate the catalytic activity of Fe/TiO2, a synthetic wastewater of phenol was irradiated by the UV lamp (757.38 mW/cm3), Fe/TiO2 with the dosage of 0.5 g/L was applied as the catalyst and H2O2 (12.5 mL, 30% wt. /wt.) was added as an oxidizing agent.Experimental results proved, the optimum condition for phenol degradation process over Fe/TiO2 is as follows: Fe loading in the TiO2 lattice: Fe2O3/TiO2 is 0.27%, calcination temperature: 600°C, and irradiation time of 600 min. Under this circumstance, 98.26% of the phenol in water was decomposed.


Main Subjects

[1] Lorret O., Francova´ D., Waldner G., Stelzer N., W-Doped Titania Nanoparticles for UV and Visible-Light Photocatalytic Reactions,Appl. Catal. B-Environ., 91: 39-46  (2009).

[2] Oros-Ruiz S., Zanella R., Prado B, Photocatalytic Degradation of Trimethoprim by Metallic Nanoparticles Supported on TiO2-P25, J. Hazard Mater., 263: 28-35 (2013).

[3] Akpan U.G., Hameed B.H., The Advancements in Sol-Gel Method of Doped-TiO2 Photocatalysts, Appl. Catal. A- Gen, 375: 1-11 (2010).

[4] Hung W.-C., Fu S.-H., Tseng J.-J., Chu H., Ko T.-H., Study on Photocatalytic Degradation of Gaseous Dichloromethane Using Pure and Iron-Doped TiO2 Prepared by the Sol-Gel Method, Chemosphere, 66: 2142-2151 (2007).

[5] Akhlaghian F., Sohrabi S., Fe/TiO2 Catalyst for Photodegradation of Phenol in Water, IJE Transactions A: Basics, 28: 499-506 (2015).

[6] Sun B., Vorontsov A.V., Smirniotis P.G., Role of Platinum Deposited on TiO2 in Phenol Photocatalytic Oxidation, Langmuir, 19, 3151-3156 (2003).

[7] Ochiai T., Fukuda T., Nakata K., Murakami T., Tryk D., Koide Y., Photocatalytic Inactivation and Removal of Algae with TiO2-Coated Materials, J. Appl. Electrochem., 40, 1737-1742 (2010).

[9] Thomas J., Yoon M., Facile Synthesis of Pure TiO2 (B) Nanofibers Doped with Gold Nanoparticles and Solar Photocatalytic Activities, Appl. Catal. B-Environ., 111–112: 502-508 (2012).

[10] Krejcı´kova´ S., Matejova´ L., Kocı´ K., Obalova´ L., Matej Z., Capek L., Sˇolcova´ O., Preparation and Characterization of Ag-Doped Crystalline Titania for Photocatalysis Applications, Appl. Catal. B-Environ., 111–112: 119-125 (2012).

[11] Yao Y., Ohko Y., Sekiguchi Y., Fujishima A., Kubota J Y., Self-Sterilization Using Silicone Catheters Coated with Ag and TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Film, Biomed. Mater. RES-A. 85B: 453-460 (2008).

[12] Wu D., You H., Jin D., Li X., Enhanced Inactivation of Escherichia Coli with Ag-Coated TiO2 Thin Film under UV-C Irradiation , J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 217: 177-183 (2011).

[13] Yu J., Xiong J., Cheng B., Liu S., Fabrication and Characterization of Ag–TiO2 Multiphase Nanocomposite Thin Films with enhanced Photocatalytic Activity, Appl. Catal. B-Environ., 60: 211-221 (2005).

[14] Angelis F.D., Fantacci S., Selloni A., Nazeeruddin M.K., Gratzel M., Amer J., Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Investigations on the Excited States of Ru(II)-Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Nanoparticles: The Role of Sensitizer Protonation, J. Chem. Soc, 129: 14156-14157 (2007).

[15] Morikawa T., Ohwaki T., Suzuki K., Moribe S., Kubota S.T., Visible-Light-Induced Photocatalytic Oxidation of Carboxylic Acids and Adehydes Over N-Doped TiO2 Loaded with Fe, Cu or Pt, Appl. Catal. B-Environ., 83: 56-62 (2008).

[17] Rongfang Yuan, Beihai Zhou, Duo Huaa, Chunhong Shi, Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Humic Acids Using Al and Feco-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes under UV/ Ozonation for Drinking Water Purification, J. Hazard. Mater., 262: 527-538 (2013).

[18] Sun Q., Leng W., Li Z., Xu Y., Effect of Surface Fe2O3 Clusters on the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 for Phenol Degradation in Water, J. Hazard. Mater., 229: 224-232 (2012).

[20] Palanisamy B., Babu C.M., Sundaravel B., Anandan S., Murugesan, V. Sol–Gel Synthesis of Mesoporous Mixed Fe2O3/TiO2 Photocatalyst: Application for Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol, J. Hazard. Mater., 252–253: 233-242 (2013).

[21] Janitabar Darzi S., Movahedi M., Visible Light Photodegradation of Phenol Using Nanoscale TiO2 and ZnO Impregnated with Merbromin Dye: A Mechanistic Investigation, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 33(2): 55-64 (2014).

[22] Schicks J., Neumann D., Specht U., Veser G., Nanoengineered Catalysts for High-Temperature Methane Partial Oxidation, Catal. Today., 81: 287-296 (2003).

[23] Ahmed S., Rasul M.G., Martens, W.N.. Brown R, Hashib M.A., Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Dgradation of Phenols in Wastewater: A Review on Current Status and Developments, Desalination, 261: 3-18 (2010).

[24] Sun, L. Li J., Wang C.L., Li S.F., Chen H.B.,
Lin C.J., An Electrochemical Strategy of Doping Fe3+ Into TiO2 Nanotube Array Films for Enhancement in Photocatalytic Activity, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 93: 1875-1880 (2009).

[25] Feyzi M., Rafiee H.R., Ranjbar Sh., Jafari F., Banafsheh Safari, Preparation and Characterization of V/TiO2 Nanocatalyst with Magnetic Nucleus of Iron, Mater. Res. Bull., 4844-4849 (2013).

[26] Mesgari Z., Gharagozlou M., Khosravi, A. Gharajig K., Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Efficiency of New Hybrid Pc/Fe-TiO2 Nanocomposite as Photocatalyst for Decolorization of Methyl Orange Using Visible Light Irradiation, Appl. Catal. A- Gen., 411-412: 139-145 (2012).

[27] Fernandes Machado N.R.C., Santana V.S., Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Structure and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 P25, Catal. Today, 107-108: 595-601 (2005).

[28] Chwei-Huann Chiou, Ruey-Shin Juang, Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol in Aqueous Solutions by Pr-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles,J. Hazard. Mater., 149: 1-7 (2007).

[29] Liqiang J., Xiaojun S., Baifu X., Baiqi W., Weimin C., Honggang F., The Preparation and Characterization of La Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles and Their Photocatalytic Activity, J. Solid State. Chem., 177: 3375-3382 (2004).

[30] Jafarzadeh Keshavarz N., Sharifnia Sh., Hosseini S.N., Rahim Pour F., Statisticaloptimization of Process Conditions for Photocatalyticdegradation of Phenol with Immobilization of Nano TiO2 Onperlite Granules, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 28 (2), 531-538 (2011).