Rice Husk and Old Corrugated Container Cement Boards: Performance of Nano-SiO2 on Strength and Dimensional Stability

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Cellulose and Paper Technology, Faculty of New Technologies Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Zirab, Mazandaran, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Wood and Paper Science and Technology, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I.R. IRAN

Abstract

In this study the effect of nano sized silica particles (nano-SiO2) on the physical and mechanical properties of rice husk and Old Corrugated Container (OCC)-cement boards was investigated. Modulus Of Rupture (MOR), Modulus Of Elasticity (MOE), Internal Bonding Strength (IB), density, water absorption and thickness swelling after 24 hours immersion in water and hardness were measured. Results showed that rice husk-cement boards with 2% nano-SiO2 demonstrated the best physical and mechanical properties. It is related to better distribution and compaction of particles during compression without particles agglomerating. A higher property of 2%-nano-SiO2 content rice-husk-cement boards was confirmed by their higher hydration temperature. Addition of 3% nano-SiO2 to the mixture reduced the density because of both the substitution of denser cement particles by lighter nano-SiO2 particles and air-entrapment in the boards. Furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses showed that the optimum amount of nano-SiO2 (2%) can fill micro pores and make a uniform structure with a rough surface which improves properties of composite boards.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Youngquist J.A., Krzysik A.M., English B.W., Spelter H.N., Chow P., Agricultural Fibers for Use in Building Components, In: "The Use of Recycled Wood and Paper in Building Applications", Forest Products Society 7386, Forest Products Society, Madison, WI, 123-134 (1996).

[2] Asasutjarit C., Hirunlabh J., khedari J., Charoenvai S., Zeghmati B., Cheul Shim U., Development of Coconut Coir-Based Lightweight Cement Board, Constr. Build. Mater., 21(2): 277-288 (2007).

[3] Aggarwal L.K., Agrawal S.P., Thapliyal P.C., Karada S.R., Cement Bonded Composite Boards with Arhar Stalks, Cem. Concr. Compos., 30(1): 44-51 (2008).

[4] Sivaraja M., Kandasamy S., Potential Reuse of Waste Rice husk as Fibre Composites in Concrete, Asian J. Civil Eng. Build. Hous., 12(2): 205-217 (2011).

[6] Teixeira D.E., Recycled Old Ccorrugated Container Fibers for Wood-Fiber Cement Sheets, ISRN Forestry, 2012: 1-8 (2012).

[7] Coutts R.S.P., Wastepaper Fibers in Cement Products, Int. Cem. Compos. Lightweight Concr., 11(3): 143-147 (1989).

[8] Fuwape J.A., Fabiyi J.S., Osuntuyi E.O., Technical Assessment of Three Layered Cement-Bonded Boards Produced from Wastepaper and Sawdust, Waste Manage., 27(11): 1611-1616 (2007).

[9] Wolfe R., Gjinolli A., Assessment of Cement Bonded Wood Composites as Means of Using Low-Valued Wood for Engineered Applications, In: "Proceedings of the International Wood Engineering Conference", New Orleans LA, on 28-31, October 1996: 74-81 (1996).

[10] Cameron N.M.D.S., Mitchell M.E., “Nanoscale: Issues and Perspectives for the Nano Century”, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley, USA (2007).

[11] Lin D.F., Lin K.L., Chang W.C., Lue H.L., Cai M.Q., Improvements of Nano-SiO2 on Sludge/Fly Ash Mortar, Waste manage., 28(6): 1081-1087 (2008).

[12] Sobolev K., Ferrada-Gutierrez M., How Nanotechnology can Change the Concrete world, Part 1, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 10: 14-17 (2005).

[13] Li Z., Wang H., He Sh., Lu Y., Wang M., Investigations on the Preparation and Mechanical Properties of the Nano Alumina Reinforced Cement Composite, Mater. Lett., 60(3): 356-359 (2006).

[14] Sanchez F., Sobolev K., Nanotechnology in Concrete: A Review, Constr. Build. Mater., 24(11): 2060-2071 (2010).

[15] Shamsipur M., Bahrami Ade N., Hajitarverdi M. S., Yazdimamaghani M., Zarei F., Influence of Micro and Nano Silica on Mechanical Properties of Plasticized Sulphur Composites, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 32 (3): 1-7 (2013).

[16] Qing Y., Zenan Z., Deyu K., Rongshen C., Influence of Nano-SiO2 Addition on Properties of Hardened Cement Paste as Compared with Silica Fume, Constr. Build. Mater., 21(3): 539-545 (2007).

[17] Li G., Properties of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Incorporating Nano-SiO2, Cem. Concr. Res., 34(6): 1043-1049 (2004).

[18] Olar R., Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies for Civil Engineering, Bull. Inst. Polit. Iasi, 4: 109-117 (2011).

[19] Lei W., Deng Y., Zhou M., Xuan L., Feng Q., Mechanical Properties of Nano SiO2 fFilled Gypsum Particleboard, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 16(1): 361-364 (2006).

[20] Jo B.W., Kim C.H., Tae G.H., Park J.B., Characteristics of Cement Mortar with Nano-SiO2 Particles, Constr. Build. Mater., 21(6): 1351–1355 (2007).

[21] Zhang S., Wang J., Cheng S., Study on the CPE/Nano SiO2 Blends, J. Funct. Polym., 15(3): 271-275 (2002).

[22] Miyafuji H., Sake S., Na2O-SiO2 Wood-Inorganic Composites Prepared by Sol-Gel Process and Their Fire-Resistant Properties, J. Wood Sci., 47(6): 483-489 (2001).

[23] Li H., Xiao H.G., Yuan J., Ou J., Microstructure of Cement Mortar with Nano Particles, Compos. Eng., 35(2) 185-189 (2004).

[24] Nourbakhsh A., Farhani-Baghlani F., Ashori A., Nano-SiO2 Ffilled Rice Husk/Polypropylene Composites: Physico-Mechanical Properties, Ind. Crop. Prod., 33(1): 183-187 (2011).

[25] Stancato A., Beraldo A., Portland Cement-Residues-Polymers Composites and Its Application to the Hollow Blocks Manufacturing, Open J. Compos. Mater., 3(1): 1-6 (2013).

[26] Hachmi M., Moslemi A.A., Campbell A.G., A New Technique to Classify the Compatibility of Wood with Cement, Wood Sci. Technol., 24(4): 345-354 (1990).

[28] Wei Y.M., Fujii T., Hiramatsu Y., Miyatake A., Yoshinaga S., Fujii T., Tomita B., A Preliminary Investigation on Microstructural Characteristics of Interfacial Zone between Cement and Exploded Wood Fiber Strand by Using SEM-EDS, J. wood Sci., 50(4): 327-336 (2004).

[31] Pacheco-Torgal F., Jalali S., Nanotechnology: Advantages and Drawbacks in the Field of Construction and Building Materials, Constr. Build. Mater., 25(2): 582-590 (2011).

[32] Lu Z.Y., Xu X., Effect of Nanometer SiO2 on Hydration Character of Portland Cement, Jianzhu Cailiao Xuebao, 9(5): 581-585 (2006) (in Chinese).

[33] Naji Givi A., Abdul Rashid S., Aziz F.N.A., Mohd Salleh M.A., Experimental Investigation of the Size Effects of SiO2 Nano-Particles on the Mechanical Properties of Binary Blended Concrete, Compos. B., 41(8): 673-677 (2010).

[34] Naji Givi A., Abdul Rashid S., Aziz F.N.A., Mohd Salleh M.A., The Effects of Lime Solution on the Properties of SiO2 Nanoparticles Binary Blended Concrete, Compos. B., 42(3): 562-569 (2011).

[36] Shih J.Y.., Chang T.P., Hsiau T.C., Effect of Nanosilica on Characterization of Portland Cement Composite, Mater. Sci. Eng., 424(1-2): 266-274 (2006).

[37] Wan Jo B., Hyun Kim C., Hoon Lim J., Investigations on the Development of Powder Concrete with Nano-SiO2 Particles, KSCE J. Civ. Eng., 11(1): 37-42 (2007).

[38] Senff L., Labrincha J.A., Ferreira V.M., Hotza D., Repette W.L., Effect of Nano-Silica on Rheology and Fresh Properties of Cement Pastes and Mortars, Constr. Build. Mater., 23(7): 2487-2491 (2009).

[39] Shi J., Li J., Zhou W., Zhang D., Improvement of Wood Properties by Urea-Formaldehyde Resin and Nano-SiO2, Front. Forest. China, 2(1): 104-109 (2007).