Department of Chemistry, Pace University, Pleasantiville, N.Y. 10570, U.S.A
Presently there are a number of fine and sensitive methods for determining chemical or biochemical substance among which bio electrodes represent the most recent development. Bioelectrodes consist of biologically active materials (e.g enzyme, antibody, whole cell or cell fragments) held in close proximity to a suitable electrochemical transducer that sense specific electroactive enzyme substrates or products. Considerable efforts are still in progress in order to improve the performance of these bio electrodes and widen their applications. The present article describes some of the most frequently used immobilization techniques in producing such sensors and reviews several parameters affecting their responses. Finally, a collection of current analytical applications is presented.